Aspen History & Heritage

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Aspen's Humble Beginnings

Originally a summer hunting camp for the Ute Indians, Aspen's first white settlers, mostly miners, arrived by 1870 in search of silver. Mining was a fruitful venture for Aspen's early settlers but, did not come without hard work. Soon, town "boomed" and rapidly became home to over 12,000 miners and their families. However, just as soon as the wealth was ushered in, the repeal of the Sherman Silver Act of 1893 caused Aspen to "bust," and town entered what is known as "The Quiet Years" with the population dropping to less than 1,000.

By the late 1940's, both skiing and aspen's modern day founders, Walter and Elizabeth Paepcke arrived in town. The Paepcke's had a vision for a community that embodied Mind, Body and Spirit, which helped Aspen to begin a civic and cultural renaissance which is alive today as "The Aspen Idea."

Aspen's Historical Locations

Make your Aspen experience unforgettable by discovering the rich and varied history that has shaped the town and its character.  Try this list of places that speak to Aspen's varied past and can give you some insight as to what makes Aspen so ... Aspen!

Hotel Jerome

The Hotel Jerome was built by early Aspen supporter and visionary Jerome B. Wheeler and has been an Aspen landmark and local gathering place since its opening in 1889.  An elegant hotel for most of its existence, the Jerome is also home to a number of restaurants, most notably the "J-Bar" where patrons can order the infamous "Aspen Crud", a milkshake infused with numerous liquors that was the preferred (and off-limits) drink of Tenth Mountain Division soldiers training here during WWII.  Tours are offered by Aspen Historical Society in partnership with the Hotel Jerome: $15/$12 for seniors and free for children under 18, Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1:30pm.

Wheeler Opera House

Catch a show or just tour the Wheeler Opera House, another one of Jerome Wheeler's legacies.  Also opened in 1889, the Wheeler was originally a part of the "Silver Circuit", a mining era collection of venues that brought internationally renowned performers to the silver and gold mining camps and towns of Colorado's high country.  Destroyed by fire in the early part of the 20th century, the Wheeler underwent one renovation in the late 1940s and a more recent overhaul in the 1980s and today is Aspen's premier performing venue.  Free tours, offered by the Aspen Historical Society in partnership with the Wheeler Opera House,  Wednesdays, 1:30pm. Call (970) 920-5770 for program information.


Wheeler/Stallard Museum

Complete your Jerome Wheeler connection by visiting the mansion he built which is now the flagship facility for the Aspen Historical Society, the Wheeler/Stallard Museum.  Hoping to overcome his wife's aversion to mining camps and towns, Wheeler built this brick Queen Ann style Victorian home in 1888 to entice her to move to Aspen to no avail: his wife never moved here and he never lived in the house.  Today the first floor is furnished and decorated the way it might have been in the late 1800s, while the Second Floor Gallery is currently showing "bayer & bauhaus: how design shaped aspen."  This new exhibit delves into the profound, but often unnoticed influence of Herbert Bayer’s work on Aspen, Colorado. Following his arrival in 1946, Bayer’s Bauhaus ethos and artistic vision began to shape the modern aesthetic and way of life in the Aspen community. He pioneered historic preservation in the area, designed a Bauhaus-inspired campus at the Aspen Institute, influenced local architecture, built innovative earthworks and helped guide the community’s cultural and philosophic values. Aspen Historical Society’s never-before-exhibited Bayer collection offers a unique view into his extensive works - both fine art and commercial – sharing a glimpse into Bayer’s lasting impact through preliminary sketch studies, original prints, architectural drawings, graphic design works, historical photographs, and more. Call the Aspen Historical Society at (970) 925-3721 for hours, directions and more. 


Holden/Marolt Mining and Ranching Museum

While the barons were living the high life, the majority of Aspen's early population worked in the mines or in businesses that supported mining.  When the silver boom busted in 1893 and many people left in search of better work opportunities, some hardy residents stayed put and ranching became the lifeblood of the area in what has become known as "The Quiet Years".  Experience Aspen's mining and ranching eras at the Holden/Marolt Mining and Ranching Museum, which is housed in an historic barn that was important first to ore processing and later to ranching. The area’s past comes alive at this pastoral museum that sits on the site of the largest industrial complex in the history of Pitkin County, The Holden Lixiviation Works. Additionally, the City of Aspen recently moved historic structures from the Zupancis homestead in downtown Aspen to the museum property. In partnership with Aspen Historical Society, the City is currently restoring the three buildings — a miner’s-cabin-turned-Victorian-era-home, a shed, and a barn - to serve as additional interpretive sites. The 1888 home changed very little since it was last occupied, making it historically valuable as one of the only intact homes from Aspen’s Victorian era.  Call the Aspen Historical Society at (970) 925-3721 for hours, directions and more. 


Ghost Towns - Ashcroft & Independence

At the dawn of the silver boom in this area in the early 1880s, the town of Ashcroft, located 11 miles south of Aspen on Castle Creek Road, was actually bigger, more populated and produced more silver than Aspen.  Its fortunes fell quickly as the nearby shallow ore deposits ran out just as Aspen's fortunes were rising and by the late 1880s Ashcroft was already in serious decline.  Its last resident died in the late 1930s and by then the town was well on its way to being the ghost town we have today.  Resident "ghosts" are on hand to answer questions and tours of Ashcroft are available in the summer months that are conducted by the Aspen Historical Society

Aspen Historical Society interns are on hand to answer questions during open hours. Ashcroft Ghost Town will be open with a docent on site beginning on June 15, 2019. 

Silver was the metal that ultimately fed Aspen's economic engine but one of the first successful camps in the area became the town of Independence, founded on July 4, 1879 on the discovery of gold.  Resident "ghosts" are on hand to answer questions and self-guided tours are easy with the brochures available at the ghost town entrance.  Independence is located about 16 miles east of Aspen on Highway 82 near Independence Pass.  Click to view a virtual tour of Independence Ghost town. For more information on Ashcroft or Independence, Ghost Towns call the Aspen Historical Society at (970) 925-3721. 

Aspen Historical Society interns are on hand to answer questions during open hours and self-guided tours are easy. Independence Ghost Town will be open with a docent on site June 22, 2019.

Stories of mining come to life with a tour of the Smuggler Mine.  One of the most famous and productive of Aspen's silver mines, the Smuggler produced a world record nugget of nearly pure silver that weighed almost a ton and ultimately had to be broken into three pieces to be hauled out of the mine.  The guided tour takes guests into the mine itself and shows firsthand how difficult the hard rock mining of the late 19th century was.  Call the mine at (970) 925-2049 for more. 


Aspen Walking Tours.
Take a stroll through Aspen's Darkside! Dare to pull back the shiny polished Aspen image and you'll be surprised at what you find. Experience the darker elements of Aspen's tarnished past on an evening stroll. 

Victorian West End Walking Tour
The mining barons, investors and entrepreneurs of the late 1800s left us a fabulous Victorian architectural legacy which can be experienced with this tour conducted by the Aspen Historical Society.  The tour shows off a number of these historic homes along with stories of the owners, their Aspen connections and even what might be buried under some of them! 

Downtown Tours - Two Ways 
Tour downtown Aspen on the Aspen Historical Society's History Coach, an electric vehicle that takes up to five passengers at a time, and learn about historic buildings, Aspen characters through the years and the general history of the town.  This tour also includes visits to the Wheeler-Stallard and Holden-Marolt museums and is the most comprehensive tour about Aspen's history.  The Historical Downtown Walking Tour provides insight and stories at every turn in downtown Aspen. 

Historic Pub Crawl
Take a guided tour of Aspen’s historic haunts, where you’ll learn about the establishment’s history and hear local lore. The tour meets at the Red Onion, continues to Aspen Public House and Aspen Brewing Company at Aspen Tap, and finishes at J-Bar at the Hotel Jerome.

Smuggler Mountain Open Space historic Jeep & Trail Tour
Explore the incredible history of the many silver mines on Smuggler Mountain. Guests will be transported by jeep up Smuggler Mountain Rd. where they’ll tour, on foot, through ruins and artifacts. The tour is offered by Aspen Historicla Society in partnership with Blazing Adventures and City of Aspen Open Space and Trails. (The tour does not enter any mines.)

Aspen Historical Society Archive Tour
Enjoy a guided “backstage” tour of the newly renovated archive and research facility at Aspen Historical Society, who operates one of the largest public archives in the region.  The free monthly tour includes a look at artifacts in the AHS Collection as well as a viewing of the Chamberlain Photographic Display in the Community Gallery.


Bauhaus Architectural Walking Tour
New this year, this tour explores examples of bauhaus principles that continue to inspire local design, including one of Herbert Bayer’s former residences, as well as styles introduced by Bayer that have influenced area architects for decades. This tour supplements the exhibit “bayer & bauhaus: how design shaped aspen”, on display at the Wheeler/Stallard Museum. 


Call (970) 925-3721 for more information. 

More to Explore


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4th of July Parade Waiver


PARADE STARTING/STAGING: The parade will begin at 11:00am. Parade positioning is “first come, first serve” and line up begins no earlier than 10:00am. There is no entry fee and the parade is open to the public. All 5 lanes of Main Street, from Aspen Street to 2nd Street, will be closed to all traffic & designated for parade staging only. Power is not provided in staging area and remember generators do need gas.

PARADE ROUTE: The parade will start East on Main Street. It will turn South onto Hunter Street, then West onto Cooper Avenue. The parade will continue West on Cooper Avenue to Galena Street. At Galena it heads North for 2 blocks before turning West onto Hopkins Avenue. The parade will continue South on Mill then West on Hyman Avenue. Parade participants will be directed to disperse at Hyman and Monarch Street.  PARADE JUDGING: Parade judging will take place in front of the Hotel Jerome. Participants will be limited to 1 minute or less for any performances in front of the judges. Security will be onsite monitoring all entries to help prevent gaps in the parade route. Recognition will be awarded to the best entries in the following categories: 

Most Patriotic | Most Humorous | Best Animal | Best Music | Most Outrageous | Best Children’s  


  • Consumption of alcohol is prohibited during the parade.
  • Candy, favors, etc. should not be thrown from your float/vehicle during the parade. This is for the safety of the spectators and to prevent children from running out into the street. 
  • Water balloons will not be permitted. According to city ordinances, those caught throwing balloons will be removed from the parade and could face citations and/or arrests. 
  • All parade entries must be in “good taste” and will be allowed in the parade per the director’s discretion. 
  • Maximum height restriction for any float entry is 13’5”.


The undersigned organization has elected to participate in the Fourth of July parade sponsored by the City of Aspen and Aspen Chamber Resort Association (“ACRA”). In consideration for City of Aspen and ACRA allowing the undersigned to participate in the festivities, the undersigned has read, understood, and willingly agreed to the terms of this INSURANCE LIABILITY AGREEMENT and WAIVER AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENT (collectively referred to herein as “RELEASE”).


                                    Participants are required to carry insurance adequate to cover any liability for damage, injury, economic loss, or other liability that may be incurred by individuals and/or organizations during the Fourth of July parade. All participants agree to carry such insurance, and also agree not to submit any claim against the insurance of City of Aspen, ACRA and/or any other sponsors of the parade, their officers, directors, agents, shareholders, employees, or anyone else directly or indirectly connected with production of the parade.


                                         The undersigned understands the potential dangers that could be encountered in participating in the Fourth of July parade. The dangers include, among other things, dangers relating to vehicular and pedestrian traffic; crowds of persons in close proximity to such traffic; animals that may react unpredictably in a parade environment; celebration and recreational activities; loud and unexpected noise; items that may be thrown to and from the crowd in connection with the parade; and other dangers traditionally associated with parades.  Understanding those risks, the undersigned for itself and for all persons who the undersigned invites or allows to participate in the parade with the undersigned, does hereby agree to indemnify, hold harmless, and release City of Aspen, ACRA and/or any other sponsors of the parade, their officers, directors, agents, shareholders, employees, and anyone else directly or indirectly connected with production of the parade from any and all liability, claims, demands, actions, or rights of action (including attorneys’ fees and costs) that are related to or are in any way connected with the undersigned’s participation in the parade. By signing this RELEASE, the undersigned intends to extinguish any and all liability and to indemnify against any loss on the part of City of Aspen, ACRA and/or any other sponsors of the parade, their officers, directors, agents, shareholders, employees, and anyone else directly or indirectly connected with production of the parade for any injury or damage of any nature (without regard to negligence or fault) to the undersigned and to all persons who the undersigned invites or allows to participate in the parade.

                                      The undersigned warrants and represents that it will not invite or allow any person to participate in the parade unless such person is bound to the terms of this RELEASE. To that end, the undersigned agrees that it shall take any steps necessary to secure agreement of such persons to the terms of this RELEASE, and that it shall be deemed a responsible person within the meaning of C.R.S. § 13-22-107 and § 19-1103(94) for all children who the undersigned invites or allows to participate in the parade.


   I am the official representative of the undersigned organization. On behalf of the organization, I acknowledge our responsibilities as set forth above. I also accept on behalf of the organization all of the terms and conditions of this



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